Long Term Effects of Tobacco

Effects of Tobacco on Smokers and Nonsmokers

It has been found through years of research that smoking can kill, and it has been linked to diseases like: chronic lung infections, stroke, and coronary heart disease. It does not only stop there but goes on to be one of the major causes of cancer of the bladder, mouth, larynx, lungs, esophagus, kidneys, cervix and pancreas.



There is also substantial proof that connects around 40 chemical constituents of tobacco that are likely to cause cancer in animals as well as humans. This does not in any way mean that tobacco not taken in the form of smoke does not have adverse effects. In fact tobacco that is chewed or consumed in some other form also plays its role in lung, oral, larynx, and esophageal cancer. Infant health disorders and an increased risk of infantile death have been linked to use of tobacco while being pregnant in women, and have had adverse effects of birth outcomes.

You’d think the effects of tobacco usage stops here but no, not only smokers, but non-smokers get adverse long term effects of tobacco as well by passive smoke; ETS (Environmental Tobacco Smoke).

 

Does Tobacco Only Cause Cancer?

It is not just cancer that is caused due to tobacco. As alarming as it should have been if that were true, most people do not take it that seriously. Apart from being a significant cause of cancer, long term effects of tobacco vary largely. In fact tobacco has been linked to cause more number of heart disease cases than cancer. It has also been known to be a major cause of inducing stroke.

 

What are the Effects of Tobacco on Long Term Health?

 

Respiratory Diseases

You can’t prevent this type of illness if you have been a chain smoker and if you have then you must have suffered or experienced short term effects like shortening of breath and bad smell.

  • Chronic Bronchitis – Noticeable increase in the size and shape of the airway along with production of mucous or sputum in a very large amount.

  • Emphysema – This incurable disease is known to have been caused due to loss in elasticity of bronchioles which are connected to the alveoli. This definitely causes problems in air exchange and chemical in-balance in blood.

 

Cancer

Even after being one of the most dreaded diseases people tend to not believe how potentially damaging it can be. Here are some of the cancers that happen because of long term effects of tobacco, whether chewed or smoked.

  • (Causal agent- Smoking/Chewing tobacco)

  • (Causal agent-Smoking/Chewing tobacco)

  • Upper respiratory tract. (Causal agent-Smoking)

  • (Causal agent-Smoking)

  • (Causal agent-Smoking/Chewingtobacco)

 



Reproductive Damage

This one is what people generally rule out but then again, long term effects of tobacco does include reproductive damage.

  • Several issues with maintaining pregnancy

  • Abnormal sperm count.

  • Early menopause

  • Menstrual problems

 

Birth Defects

Apart from reproductive damage smoking has been linked with birth defects like:

  • Stillbirth/Miscarriage.

  • Premature birth – This can result in breathing issues right after birth, and most babies are at least 200-300 grams less in weight compared to normal babies.

  • Behavioral issues in later stages of life.

  • Crib death—Sudden death caused without any waring symptoms.

  • Asthma, complications in ear or upper respiratory problems.

 

Heart Disease

Yes, long term effects of tobacco don’t rule out the heart either, in fact one of the most prevalent cases of suffering belongs to heart diseases in case of tobacco consumption.

  • High blood pressure/Hypertension.

  • Narrowing of arteries related to coronary heart diseases.

  • Heart attacks

  • Vasoconstriction

  • Strokes

  • Ineffective pumping leading to congestive heart failure.

 
Studies find long term effects of tobacco on fitness and relation with vasodilation and impaired endothelium
 
The American Journal of Cardiology in 1990 published a study which aimed at finding the effects of cigarettes on the variations of heart rate. This study stated that when 9 smokers were examined it was found that due to smoking, an acute decrease in the vagal cardiac control was noticed, in young people heavy smoking it was linked to reduction of vagal control on a long term basis. The autonomic cardiac regulation was also somewhat affected.
 
Quit Nicotine Smoking in 7 Days!Another study published by the American Heart Association in 1995 conducted on 96 patients, focused on the long term effects of smoking on the vasodilator function that was dependent on the Endothelium. The results stated that the endothelium dependent flow was blunted in case of smokers and in case of atherosclerosis, the flow dependent dilation was absent. The smokers were found to have less flow dependent dilator response in comparison to nonsmokers.
 
These two studies clearly showed that long term effects of tobacco does increase heart rate, reduction in vagal control and impairment of the endothelium dependent vasodilation of the coronary without being dependent on factors like atherosclerosis. And that diseases of smoking or chewing tobacco are not just long terms diseases, they can also occur even after a few months of tobacco use.

 

References:

Short & long term effects of cigarette smoking on heart – The American Journal of Cardiology – 1990 – By Junichiro Hayano, Masami Yamada, Yusaku Sakakibara
sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0002914990900305

Long term Cigarette Smoking Effect on Coronary Arterial Vasodilator Function – American Heart Association Journal – 1995 – By Andreas M. Zeiher, Volker Schächinger and Jan Minners
circ.ahajournals.org/content/92/5/1094.short

 

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